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JAD

Jad (ISO Code - jad) is a Bodic language of the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is spoken in Uttrakhand state in North India.

Source/ Investigator(s): Kavita Rastogi, Ajay Kumar, Ajay Kumar Singh, Sumedha Shukla, Gaurav Anand, Anjana (Jad speaker)
 
Sl.No.FeatureValueArea
1Consonant InventoriesAverage : 25Phonology
2Vowel Quality InventoriesLarge : 8Phonology
3Consonant-Vowel RatioAverage : 3.12Phonology
4Voicing in Plosives and FricativesVoicing contrast in plosives alone / pu / 'nose hair' : / bu / 'insect', / taː / 'horse (male)' / daː / 'to lick', / kebaː / 'waist' / ɡebaː / 'thigh' Phonology
5Voicing and Gaps in Plosive SystemsNone missing in /p t k b d g/ Phonology
6Uvular Consonants NonePhonology
7Glottalized Consonants No glottalized consonants Phonology
8Lateral Consonants/l/, no obstruent lateralsPhonology
9Vowel Nasalization Contrastive nasal vowels present : / pa / 'cow' / pã / 'tree' , / dɔ / 'is', / dɔ̃ / 'to beat', / ɡo / 'door', / ɡõ / 'night' , / lo / 'year' / lõ / 'arise'Phonology
10Velar NasalVelar nasal, also initially / ŋa / 'five'Phonology
11Front Rounded Vowels None Phonology
12Syllable structuresimple syllable structure VV CV, CVC, VCV, CVV, CCV, CVCC, CVCCVPhonology
13ToneSimple tone systemPhonology
14Common ConsonantsAll present : bilabials, fricatives, nasalPhonology
15Uncommon ConsonantsNonePhonology
16Fusion of Selected Inflectional FormativesTonal/concatenativeMorphology
17Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology Strongly suffixing Morphology
18ReduplicationFull and partial reduplication: /kəlu-kəlu/ 'slowly=-slowly', /jul-jəl/ 'village'Morphology
19Case Syncretism Core and non-core cases: Acc-Dat /-la/, Inst- Abl /-naso/Morphology
20Number of Gendersno grammatical genderNominal Categories
21Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender SystemsSex-based Nominal Categories
22Systems of Gender AssignmentThrough independent wordsNominal Categories
23Coding of Nominal PluralityPlural suffixNominal Categories
24Occurrence of Nominal PluralityPlural in all nouns, always obligatory Nominal Categories
25Indefinite PronounsGeneric-noun-based indefinitesNominal Categories
26Plurality in Independent Personal PronounsPerson-number stemNominal Categories
27Definite Articles No definite article but indefinite articleNominal Categories
28Indefinite Articles Indefinite word distinct from 'one' Nominal Categories
29Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent PronounsInclusive/exclusive Nominal Categories
30Distance Contrasts in DemonstrativesTwo-way contrast : – proximal and remote. Nominal Categories
31Third Person Pronouns and DemonstrativesRelated to demonstratives Nominal Categories
32 Politeness Distinctions in Pronounshonorific & non-honorificNominal Categories
33 Indefinite PronounsGeneric-noun-based Nominal Categories
34Number of Cases8-Nom, Erg /so/, Acc /la/, Inst /naso/, Abl /naso/, Loc /na, tero, tena/, Gen /ʃe/, Dat/la/Nominal Categories
35Position of Case AffixesCase suffixesNominal Categories
36Ordinal NumeralsNoneNominal Categories
37Perfective/Imperfective AspectGrammatical markingVerbal Categories
38 Past Tense Past/non-past distinction marked; no remoteness distinctionVerbal Categories
39 PerfectOther perfect Verbal Categories
40Position of Tense-Aspect AffixesTense-aspect suffixesVerbal Categories
41Order of Subject, Object and VerbSOVWord Order
42Order of Subject and VerbSVWord Order
43Order of Object and VerbOVWord Order
44Order of Adposition and Noun PhrasePostpositionsWord Order
45Order of Genitive and NounGenitive-NounWord Order
46Order of Adjective and NounNoun-Adjective Word Order
47Order of Demonstrative and NounDemonstrative word precedes noun (DemN)Word Order
48Order of Numeral and NounNumeral-NounWord Order
49Order of Degree Word and AdjectiveAdjective-Degree wordWord Order
50Order of Relative Clause and NounRelative clause-NounWord Order
51Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and NounOV and NAdj Word Order
52Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun PhraseOV and Postpositions Word Order
53Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content QuestionsMixedWord Order
54 Negative Morphemes Negative particle / -ma/Simple Clauses
55Relativization on SubjectsRelative pronoun Complex Sentences
56Numeral BasesDecimal Lexicon

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