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Hakkipikki is an Indic language of the Indo-European language family. It is spoken in Karnataka state in South India in a population of about 15,000 (Census of India 2011).

Source/ Investigator(s): S. Nagaraju
1Consonant InventoriesModerately large: 32 consonantsPhonology
2Vowel Quality InventoriesLarge: 10 vowelsPhonology
3Consonant-Vowel RatioAverage: 3.2Phonology
4Voicing in Plosives and FricativesVoicing contrast in plosives only: p, b; k ,ɡPhonology
5Voicing and Gaps in Plosive SystemsNone missing in /p t k b d ɡ/Phonology
6Uvular ConsonantsMissingPhonology
7Lateral Consonants/l/, no obstruent lateralsPhonology
8The Velar NasalNo velar nasalPhonology
9Vowel NasalizationContrastive nasal vowel present: lengthening of vowels /i i:, e e:, o o:, ɑ ɑː, u u:/ phonemic contrast /sɑ̃/ Phonology
10Front Rounded VowelsNonePhonology
11Syllable StructureComplex syllable structure: Freer combinations of two consonants(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C) Phonology
12ToneNo tonesPhonology
13Absence of Common ConsonantsAll present: bilabials, fricatives, nasalsPhonology
14Presence of Uncommon ConsonantsNonePhonology
15Fusion of Selected Inflectional FormativesExclusively concatenative: morphologically or phonologically bound, need some other host word for their pronunciation and form one single phonological word together with that host. Morphology
16Exponence of Selected Inflectional FormativesMonoexponential caseMorphology
17Locus of Marking in the ClauseDouble marking: Below, 'he’ and ‘ranga’ have case endings to indicate their syntactic functions, and the verb has affixes agreeing with both. Thus subject and object are marked on the subject and object and on the verb too. ɑ:ɳɑ rɑŋɡɑ:-nɑ mɑ:r-jo he-Nom ranga-Acc beat-Pst-3SgM (He beats Ranga).Morphology
18Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun PhrasesDependent marking: ɑ:ɳɑ mɑ:r-o t͡ʃʰijo (he is my son) he I-Gen-M son the possessor is in the Gen caseMorphology
19Zero Marking of A and P ArgumentsInconsistent marking or other typeMorphology
20Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional MorphologyPredominantly suffixingMorphology
21ReduplicationFull reduplication: eɡde eɡde ɑ:v (come quickly quickly)Morphology
22Case SyncretismInflectional case marking is syncretic for core cases only: Acc-Dat /nɑ/Morphology
23Number of GendersTwo: Masculine FeminineNominal Categories
24Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender SystemsSex-basedNominal Categories
25Systems of Gender AssignmentSemantic and formal assignment: Mostly, nouns ending with 'o' and 'j' is masculine, nouns ending with 'i' and '-ɳi' is feminine Nominal Categories
26Coding of Nominal PluralityPlural suffix: -ɑ: -ū -jĩ -ɑɖɑ:Nominal Categories
27Occurrence of Nominal PluralityPlural in all nouns, always obligatoryNominal Categories
28Plurality in Independent Personal PronounsPerson-number stemNominal Categories
29Definite ArticlesNo definite or indefinite articleNominal Categories
30Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent PronounsNo inclusive/exclusiveNominal Categories
31Third Person Pronouns and DemonstrativesRelated to remote demonstratives: -jo: is remote demonstrative pronoun jo: mɑ:rũ (that is mine)Nominal Categories
32Politeness Distinctions in PronounsNo politeness distinctionNominal Categories
33Gender Distinctions in Independent Personal Pronouns3rd person singular only: jo: 'he' ɑ:/ɑ:ɳi 'she'Nominal Categories
34Number of Cases6 case categories: Nom -ø Acc - nɑ,-ø Dat -nɑ,-in, -ø Inst -xũ Abl -tʰ Loc -mɑNominal Categories
35Position of Case AffixesCase suffixes: rɑŋɡɑ:-nɑ (Acc), gʰɑr-in (Dat)Nominal Categories
36Ordinal NumeralsOne-th, two-th, three-th: bɑn-nu (second), trɑɳ-nu (third)Nominal Categories
37Position of Pronominal Possessive AffixesPossessive suffixes :mɑ:-r-ũ gʰɑr (my house)Nominal Categories
38Obligatory Possessive InflectionNo obligatorily possessed nouns: possessive pronouns always dependent with number and gender of nounNominal Syntax
39Genitives, Adjectives and Relative ClausesHighly differentiated: no common strategies for encoding more than one of the three functions, each of the three functions is encoded by distinct grammatical strategies, genitive, adjective and relative clause respectively.Nominal Syntax
40Adjectives without NounsNot without noun: Always dependent on noun based on gender and numberNominal Syntax
41Perfective/Imperfective AspectGrammatical markingVerbal Categories
42The Past TensePast/non-past distinction marked; no remoteness distinctionVerbal Categories
43The Future TenseInflectional future existsVerbal Categories
44The PerfectPerfect derived from word meaning 'finish' or 'already'Verbal Categories
45Position of Tense-Aspect AffixesTense-aspect suffixesVerbal Categories
46The ProhibitiveNormal imperative + special negativeVerbal Categories
47Suppletion According to Tense and AspectSuppletion in both tense and aspectVerbal Categories
48Imperative-Hortative SystemsNeither type of systemVerbal Categories
49The OptativeInflectional optative presentVerbal Categories
50Order of Subject, Object and VerbSOVWord Order
51Order of Subject and VerbSVWord Order
52Order of Object and VerbOVWord Order
53Order of Adposition and Noun PhrasePostpositionsWord Order
54Order of Genitive and NounGenitive-Noun: mɑ:-r-o t͡ʃʰijo (my son)Word Order
55Order of Adjective and NounAdjective-Noun: nillũ pɑnɑɖũ (green leaf)Word Order
56Order of Demonstrative and NounDemonstrative-Noun: ɑ: ɡʰɑr (this house)Word Order
57Order of Numeral and NounNumeral-Noun: bɑ: ɡʰɑr (two house)Word Order
58Order of Degree Word and AdjectiveDegree word-Adjective: bɑɭtu pɑ:ni (hot water)Word Order
59Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun PhraseOV and Postpositions: rɑ:mu mɑnnu d͡ʒoj-j-o (ram saw me (SOV))Word Order
60Alignment of Case Marking of Full Noun Phrasesnominative–accusativeSimple Clauses
61Alignment of Verbal Person MarkingAccusativeSimple Clauses
62Ditransitive Constructions: The Verb 'Give'Indirect-object constructionSimple Clauses
63Negative MorphemesNegative affix /-ʃnɑ:/, / ko:ni/ Simple Clauses