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Darmiya (ISO Code - drd) is a Bodic language of the Sino-Tibetan language family. It is spoken in Uttrakhand state in North India.

Source/ Investigator(s): K. Srikumar, Ashish Kumar Pandey, Vishnu Kumar Singh
1Consonant InventoriesModerately large : 26Phonology
2Vowel Quality InventoriesLarge : 8Phonology
3Consonant-Vowel RatioAverage : 3.25Phonology
4Voicing in Plosives and FricativesPlosive only: p, t, k; b, d, g /pola, bola/ 'Shoe, thumb' /kum, gum/‘pillow, how' /to,do/ 'have, here'Phonology
5Voicing and Gaps in Plosive SystemsNone missig in /p t k b d g/Phonology
6Uvular Consonants none presentPhonology
7Glottalized ConsonantsabsentPhonology
8Lateral Consonants/l/, no obstruent lateralsPhonology
9Vowel Nasalization Contrastive nasal vowels present, hã ‘yes’ gõd ‘latex’Phonology
10Velar NasalVelar nasal, also initially /ŋa, ŋasa/ '5, 50'Phonology
11Front Rounded Vowels nonePhonology
12Syllable structureModerately complex syllable structure, CCVCPhonology
13TonePresent, /la/ 'hand' /lá/ 'moon'Phonology
14Fixed Stress LocationsNo fixed stressPhonology
15Common ConsonantsAll present; bilabials, fricatives, nasalsPhonology
16Presence of Uncommon Consonantsnone persentPhonology
17Fusion of Selected Inflectional FormativesExclusively concatenative Morphology
18Locus of Marking in Possessive Noun Phrases P is double-marked Morphology
19Locus of Marking: Whole-language TypologyInconsistent marking or other type Morphology
20Zero Marking of A and P Arguments Zero-markingMorphology
21Prefixing vs. Suffixing in Inflectional Morphology Weakly suffixingMorphology
22ReduplicationFull and partial reduplication, /tərso-tərso/ 'slowly-slowly', /cja-bja/ 'tea etc'Morphology
23Case Syncretism non-core, Dat-Inst /-su/Morphology
24Number of GendersNo grammatical genderNominal Categories
25Sex-based and Non-sex-based Gender SystemsSex basedNominal Categories
26Coding of Nominal PluralityPlural suffixNominal Categories
27Plurality in Independent Personal PronounsPerson-number stem, /gɛ-gɛni/ Nominal Categories
28Definite Articles Demonstrative word used as definite article Nominal Categories
29Inclusive/Exclusive Distinction in Independent PronounsNo inclusive/exclusive opposition Nominal Categories
30Distance Contrasts in DemonstrativesTwo-way contrast: remote, proximate- /ədo(this) bɛne le udo(that) ləŋ le/ 'this is a cow and that is an ox'Nominal Categories
31Politeness Distinctions in PronounsNo politeness distinctionNominal Categories
32Indefinite PronounsGeneric-noun-basedNominal Categories
33Number of Cases6-7 cases Nominal Categories
34Position of Case AffixesCase suffixes Nominal Categories
35Ordinal NumeralsFirst, two-th, three-th, /tuktu/ 'first', /nexyu/ 'two-th'Nominal Categories
36Numeral ClassifiersAbsentDistributive Numerals
37Perfective/Imperfective AspectGrammatical marking Verbal Categories
38Past Tense Present, no remoteness distinctionsVerbal Categories
39Future TenseInflectional future exists- /-əŋ/Verbal Categories
40Position of Tense-Aspect AffixesTense-aspect suffixes /wo ləja nini/ he sleep-IMPF-3sg-be 'He is sleeping'Verbal Categories
41The Prohibitive Normal imperative + normal negative, /tha ga/ 'don’t do'Verbal Categories
42The OptativeInflectional optative present, /-lo/ Verbal Categories
43The ProhibitiveNormal imperative + normal negativeVerbal Categories
44Coding of Evidentialitynot always markedVerbal Categories
45Order of Subject, Object and VerbSOV, /ram(S) so gita(O) təŋso(V)/ 'Ram saw Gita'Word Order
46Order of Subject and VerbSVWord Order
47Order of Object and VerbOVWord Order
48Order of Adposition and Noun PhrasePostpositionsWord Order
49Order of Genitive and NounGenitive-NounWord Order
50Order of Adjective and NounAdjective-NounWord Order
51Order of Demonstrative and NounDemonstrative-NounWord Order
52Order of Numeral and NounNumeral-NounWord Order
53Order of Degree Word and AdjectiveDegree word-AdjectiveWord Order
54Order of Relative Clause and NounMixedWord Order
55Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adjective and NounOV and AdjN Word Order
56Relationship between the Order of Object and Verb and the Order of Adposition and Noun PhraseOV and Postpositions Word Order
57Position of Interrogative Phrases in Content QuestionsInterrogative phrases not obligatorily initial, /kha(Q) ji ram le/ 'Are you Ram?' , /ado kha(Q) le?/ 'What is this?'Word Order
58Order of Numeral and NounNumeral-NounWord Order
59Negative Morphemes Negative PreffixSimple Clauses
60Passive ConstructionsPresent, /kursi hjəŋjən so ki(Pass)-ccʰaso/ 'The chair was broken by children'Simple Clauses
61Relativization Relativization on SubjectsComplex Sentences
62Numeral BasesDecimal Lexicon